A subpopulation of neurons in the brain's zona incerta, or "zone of uncertainty," drives investigatory and novelty-seeking behavior in mice, according to a new study.
We retrospectively reviewed clinical information of pediatric patients whose CSF was analyzed for NMDAR antibodies, and evaluated the 2016 diagnostic criteria for anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. The criteria showed high sensitivity but low positive predictive value in our cohort. However, majority of the false positive cases were associated with a neuroimmunological disease. Collectively, physicians should start immunomodulatory therapy in the criteria-positive cases, but continue differential diagnosis, focusing especially on other forms of encephalitis.
A new, noninvasive method for measuring brain blood flow with light has been developed by biomedical engineers and neurologists at UC Davis and used to detect brain activation. The new method, functional interferometric diffusing wave spectroscopy, or fiDWS, promises to be cheaper than existing technology and could be used for assessing brain injuries, or in neuroscience research.
The research group created a virus capable of acting on specific adult brain regions, helping to elucidate the role of key neurons in the prefrontal cortex. They tested the technique on mice.
Scientists use a swathe of modern techniques to map, in unprecedented detail, the molecular changes in the brain of mice that grew up in stimulating surroundings. These can be pinpointed to specific 'epigenetic' modifications to the genome within neurons and glia cells. These then regulate the activity of a minority of genes, especially within genomic regions implicated in cognitive mental health in humans. Published by the open access publisher Frontiers, the study may yield new leads in the search for mental health therapies.
A new study from UC Berkeley's Haas School of Business and UC San Francisco's Department of Neurology combines insights from economics and psychology with decision-making experiments and fMRI brain scans to examine how our imperfect memories affect our decision making. Answering this question could hold implications for everything from conducting consumer research and crafting public policy to managing neurodegenerative diseases.
Prof. Ofer Yizhar and his team in the Weizmann Institute of Science's Neurobiology Department took a light-sensitive protein derived from mosquitos and used it to devise an improved method for investigating the messages that are passed from neuron to neuron in the brains of mice.
Previous research has suggested that an inhaled anesthetic called sevoflurane may promote the brain changes of Alzheimer's disease. A new study in cells and mice reveals that sevoflurane causes the Alzheimer's-related protein tau to leave neurons and enter immune cells (microglia) in the brain, ultimately leading to inflammation and cognitive impairment.
Lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) is a type of lysophospholipid that are reportedly present in the brain. The latest studies in animal models have reported elevated levels of LPE in the brain after traumatic brain injury and cerebral ischemia. Fluctuations in LPE concentration have also been reported in the plasma of patients with major depression and Alzheimer's disease. Although these reports suggest the involvement of LPE in brain function, the role in the brain has remained unclear.
In a new study, researchers with the ASU-Banner Neurodegenerative Disease Center at the Biodesign Institute and their colleagues investigate tangles in the brain -- pathologies not only characteristic of Alzheimer's but other neurodegenerative conditions as well. The research homes in on a particular protein known as Rbbp7, whose dysregulation appears linked to the eventual formation of tau protein tangles and the rampant cell death associated with Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases.