The smells that newborn mice are exposed to (or "imprint" on to use the academic term) affect many social behaviors later in life, but how this happens is still a mystery. Scientists from Japan have now discovered the molecules necessary for imprinting. Their new study sheds light on the decision-making process and neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders. It also proposes more effective use of oxytocin therapy for such disorders at an early age.
A small, light-activated molecule recently tested in mice represents a new approach to eliminating clumps of amyloid protein found in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients. If perfected in humans, the technique could be used as an alternative approach to immunotherapy and used to treat other diseases caused by similar amyloids. This research is a peer-reviewed experimental studying using mice and human tissue samples.
A chemical known to protect nerve cells also slows glaucoma, the leading cause of irreversible blindness, results of a new study in rats show.
Scientists at the Institut Pasteur, CNRS, and Tel Aviv University working in collaboration with the École Polytechnique and INRAE have successfully performed 3D visualization and spatial and temporal distribution analysis of neural stem cell activation in the adult brain of a zebrafish vertebrate model. Their findings demonstrate for the first time that activation events for these cells are coordinated in time and space. In particular, these results may help improve our understanding of regulation processes triggered during brain tumor formation.
The millions of people who have chronic sinusitis deal not only with stuffy noses and headaches, they also commonly struggle to focus and experience depression and other symptoms that implicate the brain's involvement in their illness. New research links sinus inflammation with alterations in brain activity, specifically with the neural networks that modulate cognition, introspection and response to external stimuli.
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease with multiple debilitating symptoms. One of them is sleep disorders; however, owing to limited research, little is known about why only some patients are affected, how sleep disorders influence MSA severity, or even how sleep disorders vary across different MSA subtypes. Now researchers at West China Hospital of Sichuan University have uncovered these mysteries in a new study published in Chinese Medical Journal.
A new study published in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research has examined the effects of type 1 diabetes and diabetic neuropathy on the skeleton.
A University of Houston biomedical engineer is reporting a new deep neural network architecture - to be used on a standard laptop - that provides early diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc), a rare autoimmune disease marked by hardened or fibrous skin and internal organs.
Employing innovative technologies for combining data from hundreds of crystals, scientists determined the molecular structure of Glycine Transporter 1, a protein that modulates neuronal activity in the brain. The revealed binding sites through which the transporter can be inhibited by drugs. This could open new avenues for developing psychiatric drugs. The study was conducted by researchers at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) Hamburg, Aarhus University, F. Hoffmann-La Roche, Linkster Therapeutics, and University of Zurich.
In addition to smoothing out wrinkles, researchers have found that the drug Botox can reveal the inner workings of the brain. A new study used it to show that feedback from individual nerve cells controls the release of dopamine, a chemical messenger involved in motivation, memory, and movement.