Underground pipelines that transport oil and gas are very important engineering communications worldwide. Some of these underground communications are built and operated in earthquake-prone areas. The research shows that current methods used for calculating stress received by the underground pipelines during an earthquake are incorrect.
Using mathematical modeling, researchers considered a time very early in evolution when primordial species reproduced using external fertilization. In the model, bigger reproductive cells, or gametes, presented a competitive edge because they could hold more nutrients for a potential zygote. Smaller gametes, however, required fewer resources to make, which put less stress on the parent. Organisms evolved to specialize in large or small gametes, precursors to eggs and sperm.
A new study by Texas A&M University researchers published in PLOS ONE details a new model for making short-term projections of daily COVID-19 cases that is accurate, reliable and easily used by public health officials and other organizations.
Two MIT professors have proposed a new approach to estimating the risks of exposure to Covid-19 under different indoor settings. The guideline they developed suggests a limit for exposure time, based on the number of people, the size of the space, the kinds of activity, whether masks are worn, and the ventilation and filtration rates.
The dynamics of the neural activity of a mouse brain behave in a peculiar, unexpected way that can be theoretically modeled without any fine tuning, suggests a new paper by physicists at Emory University. Physical Review Letters published the research, which adds to the evidence that theoretical physics frameworks may aid in the understanding of large-scale brain activity.
Words categorize the semantic fields they refer to in ways that maximize communication accuracy while minimizing complexity. Recent studies have shown that human languages are optimally balanced between accuracy and complexity. For example, many languages have a word that denotes the colour red, but no language has individual words to distinguish ten different shades of the colour. These additional words would complicate the vocabulary and rarely would they be useful to achieve precise communication.
Scientists developed a new mathematical model for predicting how COVID-19 spreads, accounting for individuals' varying biological susceptibility to infection and levels of social activity, which naturally change over time.
The model shows viral outbreaks can be prevented if at least 60% of a population complies with both measures
Artificial intelligence could be one of the keys for limiting the spread of infection in future pandemics. In a new study, researchers at the University of Gothenburg have investigated how machine learning can be used to find effective testing methods during epidemic outbreaks, thereby helping to better control the outbreaks.
Researchers from Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART) and National University of Singapore (NUS) have developed a new multifaceted method that can directly observe compositional fluctuations in indium gallium nitride, a semiconductor material used in LEDs. The method can be adapted and applied in other materials science studies to investigate compositional fluctuations.